What is a Company?- Definition, Characteristics and Latest Case Laws

The members may derive profits without being burdened with the management of the company. They do not have effective and intimate control over its working and they elect their representatives as Directors on the Board of Directors of the company to conduct corporate functions through managerial personnel employed by them. In other words, the company is administered and managed by its managerial personnel. The word ‘company’ is derived from the Latin word Com Panis (Com means ‘With or together’ and Panis means ‘Bread’), and it originally referred to an association of persons who took their meals together.

Bakeries, cafés, and eateries are some of the most difficult types of enterprises to run in the middle of the pandemic. New solutions such as frictionless delivery services can become a secure method to get through the epidemic and help people. In India, small businesses hold a unique place in the industrialised society due to their capacity to hire workers and generate jobs.

meaning of company

4.2 Determination of the enemy character of a company – Company being an artificial person cannot be an enemy or friend. However, during war, it may become necessary to lift the corporate veil and see the persons behind as to whether they are enemies or friends. It is because, though a company enjoys a distinct entity, its affairs are essentially run by individuals.


Advantages of doing business under the corporate form of organisation. A full stop company being a separate person is the owner of its assets and bound by its liabilities. The liability of a member as a shareholder extends to the contribution of the capital of the company up to the nominal value of shares held and not paid by him. Independent corporate existence/Legal identity – the commendable feature of a company is its independent corporate existence. By registration under the Companies Act, a company becomes vested with corporate personality by law, which is independent of, and distinct from its members. A company after incorporation under the act is a legal person.

Shares are always transferable although the right to transfer them is often more less restricted”. On incorporation, a company becomes a body corporate a corporation with perpetual succession and a common seal. It also acquires a personality distinct from its members.

meaning of company

A company of this kind could have a maximum of 50 members. These companies’ shares and debentures are not open to the general public. The number of shareholders required for a company to be deemed a private company is two, and it is explicitly stated that two members collectively owning a single share shall be counted as one shareholder, not two. Ltd.’ at the end of a company’s name makes it possible to identify it as a private company. It is difficult to deal with all the cases in which courts have lifted or might lift the corporate veil. Company being an artificial person cannot be incapacitated by illness and it does not have an allotted span of life.

Companies Meaning Correct Use & Difference

The Company will not lose its identity to the majority shareholder under any circumstances. According to Section 2 of the Companies Act of 2013, public companies are those that are not private. A public company must have at least 7 employees, as required by Section 3 of the Companies Act, 2013. The right to transfer shares and debentures in a public company to the general public is inherent in the nature of the public company.

Proficiency in Management – A Company is capable of attracting professional managers. It is due to the fact that being attached to the management of the company gives them the status of the business or executive class. In the words of Alfred Lord Tennyson company’s life term may be stated as “….For men may come and men may go, But the company goes on forever.”. You can enter a word by copy & post, drag & drop, or by typing in the search box above to get the meanings of company. Company | English dictionary translates English to English and English to English company words company phrases with company synonyms company antonyms company pronunciations.

  • The majority of firms in the field of production and services are registered companies.
  • Flexibility, close relationship with customers, and lean staffing are again some of the greater points which make a small company attractive when compared with larger ones.
  • After ceasing to be employed by the plaintiff, Horne formed a Company which carried on a competing business and caused the whole of its shares to be allotted to his wife and an employee of the company, who were appointed to be its directors.
  • While piloting the company’s plane he was killed in an accident.

When the company was liquidated, both the Debenture holders recovered the money, i.e. Therefore the minor, unsecured creditors got nothing from the liquidation. Section 2 of the Company Act, 2013 mentions these forms of companies. When the liability of a company is covered by the guarantee, that ensures that the members of the company agreed to the Memorandum of Association to reimburse the same amount during the winding up of the company. The members’ liability of such companies is restricted to the undertaking provided by them.

KPMG has reported that there are 420 million online gamers in India, making it second only to China. This trajectory is being driven by the growing younger population that finds itself with more disposable income combined with a rapid rise in the use of smartphones. Because the two firms engaged in the transaction had previously operated independently, they may have different goals. As a result, Merger and acquisition transactions frequently result in restructuring and employment cutbacks to enhance efficiency. On the other hand, job dismissal might lower employees’ morale and productivity.

Although the word ‘Company’ is colloquially applied to both , the statute regards companies and Company law as distinct from partnerships and partnership law. A transport company wanted to obtain licences for its vehicles, but it could not do so if it made the application in its own name. It, therefore, formed a subsidiary company and the application for licences was made in the name of the subsidiary. It was held that since the defendant in fact controlled the https://1investing.in/ company, its formation was a mere ‘cloak or sham’ to enable him to break his agreement with the plaintiff. Accordingly, an injunction was issued against him and against the company he had formed restraining them from soliciting the plaintiff’s customers. 4.2 Prevention of fraud or improper conduct – Where the medium of a company has been used for committing fraud or improper conduct, courts have lifted the veil and looked at the realities of the situation.

And the legal entity of Company is separate from the entity of its members. This is the reason that the rights and liability of Company are separate from those person by whom the Company has been created. The word Company has no strictly technical or legal meaning . It may be described to imply an association of persons for some common object or objects . The word Company , in simple term , may be described to mean a voluntary association of person who have come together for carrying on some business and sharing the profits there from. A company was incorporated in London by a German company for the purpose of selling tyres manufactured in Germany.

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4.1 Liability for ultra vires Acts – Directors and other officers of a company will be personally liable for all those acts which they have done on behalf of a company if the same are ultra vires the company. As per section 22, as amended by the Companies Act, 2015, a company may, under its common seal, if any, through general or special power of attorney empower any person to execute deeds on its behalf in any place either in or outside India. It further provides that a deed signed by such an attorney on behalf of the company and under his seal where sealing is required, shall bind the company.

Just upload your form 16, claim your deductions and get your acknowledgment number online. You can efile income tax return on your income from salary, house property, capital gains, business & profession and income from other sources. Further you can also file TDS returns, generate Form-16, use our Tax Calculator software, claim HRA, check refund status and generate rent receipts for Income Tax Filing. The advantages of starting a business include diversification of profits, a positive connection between effort and reward, independence of production, and versatility. The drawbacks of starting a company include increased financial burden, increased legal liability, long working hours, employee and administrative personnel responsibilities, and legislation and tax issues. In the legal sense, a company is an association of both natural and artificial persons and is incorporated under the existing law of a country.

Such companies include the British East India Company, founded in England in 1600, and the Dutch East India Company, founded in Holland in 1602 to trade with India and the East, as well as the Bank of England . Now, these forms of companies do not exist in India after the country’s independence. A company is a legal entity that is often referred to as an artificial being. It does not take birth as a normal being but is created by statute. A company, on the other hand, has all the privileges of a normal individual.

meaning of company

The creditors of a company cannot sue the company’s shareholders Majority or minority to pay the company’s debts. Investment Companies, as described in Section 186 of the Companies Act of 2013, are companies that conduct a primary activity or trade involving the shares of other companies. Securities can be in the form of shares, debentures, or other securities issued by the company. These companies are dependent on the trend in the stock market and analyze the company’s maximum investment gains. The commonly practiced stock market terms related to the bear and bull market and the trend’s interpretation play a key role in achieving company-oriented benefit.

On the basis of Incorporation:

All the approaches for an organisational structure have their pros and cons. An acquisition might assist the firm rapidly grow its market share. Maruti to enter mid-SUV segment to lift market share to 50%A Senior Executive Director of Maruti Suzuki told reporters that in the non-SUV segment, the company has a market share of more than 65% while meaning of company in the SUV segment is not as big. The company’s overall objective is to lift the overall market share to 50%. ​​​​He also said that the market for SUV’s has been the largest and fastest growing segment and Maruti has a god market share of this segment. For the entry level segment, Maruti has a share of 20% of the 6.6 lakh cars sold annually.

Examples of statutory companies in India include the Reserve Bank of India, the Industrial Finance Corporation of India, the Life Insurance Corporation of India, etc. Existence, which means that a company never dies, even if the members cease to exist. The membership of a company changes from time to time, but that has no effect on the existence of the company. The company only comes to an end, when it is wound up according to the law of companies act,2013.